Vitruvius, I Dieci Libri dell' Architettvra di M. Vitrvvio, 1556

Table of handwritten notes

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          <pb o="8" file="0012" n="12" rhead="PROEMIO."/>
          <p style="it">
            <s xml:id="echoid-s443" xml:space="preserve">Ecco l’ultima diſſerenza, che ne i ueri, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s444" xml:space="preserve">giuſti termini, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s445" xml:space="preserve">quaſi confini rinchiude l’ Architettura, percioche il giudicare l’opere compiute dal
              <lb/>
            l’ Arti, è propio di lei, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s446" xml:space="preserve">non d’ altre: </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s447" xml:space="preserve">l’Oratore s’adorna di molte Arti, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s448" xml:space="preserve">Diſcipline, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s449" xml:space="preserve">quelle grandisſime ſono, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s450" xml:space="preserve">bellisſime, il ſimi-
              <lb/>
            gliante ſa il Medico, ma l’uno, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s451" xml:space="preserve">l’altro hanno diuerſi intendimenti, l’Oratore s’adorna per potere perſuadere, cioè indurre opinione, il Me-
              <lb/>
            dico, per indurre, ò conſeruare la ſanità, ma lo Architetto ſolo per giudicare, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s452" xml:space="preserve">approuare l’opere conſumate dall’ altre Arti, conſumate
              <lb/>
            dico, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s453" xml:space="preserve">perfette ò uero compiute, come dice Vitr. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s454" xml:space="preserve">però che non ſi puo giudicare ſe non le coſe finite, acciò neſſuna ſcuſa ſia dell’ Artefice.
              <lb/>
            </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s455" xml:space="preserve">Dalla diffinitione dell’ Architettura ſi comprende, che coſa è Architetto, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s456" xml:space="preserve">ſi conoſce Architetto eſſer colui, ilquale per certa, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s457" xml:space="preserve">maraui-
              <lb/>
            glioſa ragione, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s458" xml:space="preserve">uia, ſi con la mente, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s459" xml:space="preserve">con l’animo ſa determinare come con l’opera condurre à fine quelle coſe, che da il mouimento de i
              <lb/>
            peſi, dal compartimento de i corpi, dalla compoſitione dell’opere à beneficio de gli huomini commendate ſaranno. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s460" xml:space="preserve">Dice adunque Vitr.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s461" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s462" xml:space="preserve">Architettura è Scienza ornata di molte dottrine, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s463" xml:space="preserve">uarie eruditioni.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s464" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p style="it">
            <s xml:id="echoid-s465" xml:space="preserve">Et per Dottrina s’intende quella eſſere la quale i Maeſtri inſegnano, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s466" xml:space="preserve">Diſciplina quella laquale i diſcipoli imparano, il parlare è ſtrumento del-
              <lb/>
              <note position="left" xlink:label="note-0012-01" xlink:href="note-0012-01a" xml:space="preserve">10</note>
            l’inſegnare, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s467" xml:space="preserve">l’udire dell’imparare, la Dottrina comincia nel concetto di colui, che inſegna, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s468" xml:space="preserve">s’eſtende alle parole; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s469" xml:space="preserve">ma la diſciplina comin
              <lb/>
            cia nell’udito di colui, che impara, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s470" xml:space="preserve">termina nella mente, ma bella coſa, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s471" xml:space="preserve">utile è il ſopponere per ragione, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s472" xml:space="preserve">dimoſtrare per pratica, in
              <lb/>
            quello é la Dottrina, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s473" xml:space="preserve">in queſto la eruditione, cioè lo ſgroſſamento. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s474" xml:space="preserve">(Per lo cui giuditio s’approuano) Il giudicare è coſa eccellen-
              <lb/>
            tisſima, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s475" xml:space="preserve">non ad altri conceſſa, che à ſaui, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s476" xml:space="preserve">prudenti, percioche il giuditio ſi fa ſopra le coſe conoſciute, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s477" xml:space="preserve">per eſſo (s’approua)
              <lb/>
            Cioè ſi da la ſentenza, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s478" xml:space="preserve">ſi dimoſtra che con ragione s’è operato. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s479" xml:space="preserve">Approua adunque l’ Architettura. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s480" xml:space="preserve">(L’opere fatte dall’altre Arti
              <lb/>
            compiutamente. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s481" xml:space="preserve">Opera) e quello artiſicio, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s482" xml:space="preserve">lauoro che resta ceſſando l’operatione dell’ Artefice, come operatione è quel mouimento
              <lb/>
            ch’egli ſa mentre lauora. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s483" xml:space="preserve">Ma attione s’intende negotio, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s484" xml:space="preserve">maneggio ciuile, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s485" xml:space="preserve">uirtuoſo, ceſſato ilquale, niente piu reſta (Arti) Qui s’in-
              <lb/>
            tende l’ Arti in quanto s’adoprano, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s486" xml:space="preserve">ſi ſanno, le ragioni delle quali à eſſa padrona ſi riferiſcono, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s487" xml:space="preserve">qui ſia fine della diffinitione dell’ Archi-
              <lb/>
            tettura. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s488" xml:space="preserve">Nella quale uirtualmente compreſe ſono le belle uerità dell’ Architettura, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s489" xml:space="preserve">de i precetti ſuoi, coſa degna di molta conſideratione,
              <lb/>
            & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s490" xml:space="preserve">perche chiaramente s’intenda queſto notabile ſegreto. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s491" xml:space="preserve">Dico che in ciaſcuna cognitione, il diſſinire il ſoggetto, del quale ſi tratta, che è
              <lb/>
              <note position="left" xlink:label="note-0012-02" xlink:href="note-0012-02a" xml:space="preserve">20</note>
            quello à cui ſi ri teriſce tutto quello, che ſi tratta, contiene uirtualmente le ſolutioni de i dubij, le inuentioni de i ſecreti, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s492" xml:space="preserve">le uerità delle coſe
              <lb/>
            in quella ſcienza contenute. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s493" xml:space="preserve">Virtualmente contenere intendo, poter produrre una coſa, come il ſeme contiene in uirtu il frutto. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s494" xml:space="preserve">La diffini-
              <lb/>
            tione adunque del ſoggetto, quando è fatta con leragioni dichiarate di ſopra, cioè quando dimostra la natura della coſa diffinita, la raccommu
              <lb/>
            nanza che ha con molte coſe, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s495" xml:space="preserve">la differenza, propietà, che tiene; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s496" xml:space="preserve">ha uirtù di far maniſeſte l’oſcure dimande, che ſono di quella ſcienza,
              <lb/>
            della quale, è, il ſoggetto diffinito, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s497" xml:space="preserve">la ragione, è, perche la diffinitione del ſuggetto, è, principio, il quale come precetto dell’ Arte eſſer
              <lb/>
            deue uero, utile, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s498" xml:space="preserve">conforme; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s499" xml:space="preserve">come dice Galeno. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s500" xml:space="preserve">Vero, perche niente ſi comprende, che non ſia uero, come ſe alcuno diceſſe il fele della
              <lb/>
            Chimera eſſer’ utile à gli infermi; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s501" xml:space="preserve">queſto non ſi potrebbe comprendere, perciò che non ſi troua, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s502" xml:space="preserve">non e uero che la Chimera ſia. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s503" xml:space="preserve">Vtile biſogna
              <lb/>
            ſia il precetto, perciò è neceſſario che egli tenda à qualche fine; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s504" xml:space="preserve">& </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s505" xml:space="preserve">utilità, non è altro che riferire le coſe al debito fine, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s506" xml:space="preserve">in uero nõ è de-
              <lb/>
            gna del nome di Arte quella cognitione la cui operatione, non è utile alla humana uita. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s507" xml:space="preserve">La conſormità é poſta nella uirtù predetta, molte co-
              <lb/>
            ſe in uero hanno in ſe la forza della uerità, che non hanno la forza della conſormità, perche non hanno ualore d’inſluire il lume loro nelle co-
              <lb/>
              <note position="left" xlink:label="note-0012-03" xlink:href="note-0012-03a" xml:space="preserve">30</note>
            ſe, ilche ſi conoſce, che uolendo noi applicare i principij alle coſe, non ſi raccoglie alcuna ragione, percio che non ſono concludenti, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s508" xml:space="preserve">con-
              <lb/>
            formi, quando adunque il ſoggetto, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s509" xml:space="preserve">le propietà naſcono da i principij, all hor a ui è la conformità, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s510" xml:space="preserve">la uirtù conſiſte nell’applicatione.
              <lb/>
            </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s511" xml:space="preserve">Vero è da tutti giudicato conoſciuti i termini, come io diceua, che ſe dalle coſe equali ſi leueranno l’equali, ò dalle pari, le pari il rimanente
              <lb/>
            ſarà pari, ò equale, ne ſolamente è uero queſto principio, ma di ualore ineſtimabile, perciò che egli s’applica dal Filoſoſo naturale à i mo-
              <lb/>
            uimenti, al tempo, à gli ſpatij; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s512" xml:space="preserve">dal Geometra alle miſure, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s513" xml:space="preserve">grandezze; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s514" xml:space="preserve">da l’ Arithmetico à i numeri, dal Muſico à i ſuoni; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s515" xml:space="preserve">dal Nocchiero al
              <lb/>
            uolteggiare;</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s516" xml:space="preserve">dal Medico alle uirtù, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s517" xml:space="preserve">qualità delle coſe; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s518" xml:space="preserve">ſtando adunque le già dette coſe, ne ſeguita quello che dirà Vitr. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s519" xml:space="preserve">dell’ Architettu-
              <lb/>
            ra, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s520" xml:space="preserve">prima del ſuo naſcimento, poi delle ſue conditioni, dice adunque.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s521" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s522" xml:space="preserve">Eſſa naſce da fabrica, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s523" xml:space="preserve">da diſcorſo.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s524" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p style="it">
            <s xml:id="echoid-s525" xml:space="preserve">Ma questa conſequenza non ſi puo ſapere ſe prima non ſi fa manifeſto che coſa è fabrica, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s526" xml:space="preserve">che coſa è diſcorſo, però dice Vitr.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s527" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s528" xml:space="preserve">Fabrica è continuo, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s529" xml:space="preserve">eſſercitato penſamento dell’uſo, che di qualunque materia, che per dar forma all’opera pro-
              <lb/>
              <note position="left" xlink:label="note-0012-04" xlink:href="note-0012-04a" xml:space="preserve">40</note>
            poſta ſi richiede, con le mani ſi compie. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s530" xml:space="preserve">Diſcorſo è quello, che le coſe fabricate prontamente, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s531" xml:space="preserve">con ragioneuole
              <lb/>
            proportione puo dimoſtrando manifeſtare.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s532" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p style="it">
            <s xml:id="echoid-s533" xml:space="preserve">Diuino è ueramente il diſiderio di quegli, che leuando la mente alla conſideratione delle coſe, cercano la cagione di eſſe, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s534" xml:space="preserve">riguardando come dal
              <lb/>
            diſopra, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s535" xml:space="preserve">da lunge la uerità s’ accendono alle fatiche, per lo contrario molti ſono, che con grandisſime lodi al Cielo inalzando i dotti, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s536" xml:space="preserve">
              <lb/>
            letterati huomini, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s537" xml:space="preserve">con marauiglia riſguardando le ſcienze fanno ogni altra coſa piu preſto, che affaticarſi per acquiſtarle. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s538" xml:space="preserve">Sono anche mol-
              <lb/>
            ti, che auenga dio che del certo ſappiano eſſer biſogno per l’acquiſto d’una ſcienza participare di molte altre, poco però di quelle ſi curano,
              <lb/>
            anzi danno biaſimo à gli studioſi di quelle, queſti come gente trauiata, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s539" xml:space="preserve">folle ſi denno laſciare. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s540" xml:space="preserve">Bella coſa è il poter giudicare, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s541" xml:space="preserve">appro-
              <lb/>
            uare l’opre de mortali, come atto di uirtù ſuperiore uerſo l’inferiore, nientedimeno pochi ſi danno alla fatica, pochi uogliano adoperarſi; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s542" xml:space="preserve">& </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s543" xml:space="preserve">
              <lb/>
            uſcire delle pelli dell’otio, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s544" xml:space="preserve">perciò non fanno giudicio, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s545" xml:space="preserve">conſequentemente non peruengono al fine dell’ Architettura. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s546" xml:space="preserve">Biſogna adunque eſ-
              <lb/>
            ſercitio, biſogna diſcorſo, il diſcorſo come padre, la fabrica è come madre dell’ Architettura.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s547" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <note position="left" xml:space="preserve">50</note>
          <p>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s548" xml:space="preserve">Fabrica è continuato, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s549" xml:space="preserve">eſſercitato penſiero dell’uſo.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s550" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p style="it">
            <s xml:id="echoid-s551" xml:space="preserve">Ogni artificioſo componimento ha l’eſſer ſuo dalla notitia del fine, come dice Galeno. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s552" xml:space="preserve">Volendo adunque fabricare, fa di meſtieri hauere conoſci-
              <lb/>
            mento del fine. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s553" xml:space="preserve">Fine intendo io quello à cui s’indrizza l’operatione, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s554" xml:space="preserve">in queſto intelletto conſidera che coſa è principio, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s555" xml:space="preserve">che coſa è mez-
              <lb/>
            zo, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s556" xml:space="preserve">troua che il principio ſi conſidera in modo di preſidenza, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s557" xml:space="preserve">nel principiare il fine è prima, che lo agente, perche il fine è quello che
              <lb/>
            muoue all’opera, lo agente è prima che la forma, perche lo agente induce la forma, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s558" xml:space="preserve">la forma è prima che la materia, imperoche la materia
              <lb/>
            non e moſſa ſe la forma non è prima nella mente di colui che opera. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s559" xml:space="preserve">Il mezzo ueramente è il ſoggetto, nelquale il fine manda la ſua ſimiglianza
              <lb/>
            al principio, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s560" xml:space="preserve">il principio la rimanda al fine, però non è concordanza maggiore di quella che è tra il principio, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s561" xml:space="preserve">il fine, oltra di queſto ſi
              <lb/>
            comprende, che chiunque impediſce il mezzo leua il principio del fine, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s562" xml:space="preserve">il mezzo per cagione del principio s’affatica, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s563" xml:space="preserve">riſpetto al fine ſi
              <lb/>
            ripoſa, come dicono i ſauij. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s564" xml:space="preserve">Volendo adunque fabricare, biſogna conoſcere il fine, come quello che almezzo impone forza, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s565" xml:space="preserve">necesſi-
              <lb/>
            tà. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s566" xml:space="preserve">Ma per la cognitione del fine è neceſſario lo studio, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s567" xml:space="preserve">il penſamento, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s568" xml:space="preserve">ſi come il ſaettatore non indirizzerebbe la ſaetta alla brocca,
              <lb/>
              <note position="left" xlink:label="note-0012-06" xlink:href="note-0012-06a" xml:space="preserve">60</note>
            ſe egli non teneſſe ferma la mira, coſi l’ Arteſice non toccherebbe il fine, ſe da quello altroue ſi riuolgeſſe. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s569" xml:space="preserve">L’uſo adunque è (come s’è detto) driz
              <lb/>
            zare le coſe al debito fine, come abuſo è torcerle da quello, ma per hauer queſto indrizzamento delle coſe al fine, fa biſogno hauer un’altro
              <lb/>
            uſo, ilquale uuol dire aſſuefattione, laquale non è altro, che ſpeſſa, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s570" xml:space="preserve">frequentata operatione d’alcuna uirtù, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s571" xml:space="preserve">forza dell’anima. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s572" xml:space="preserve">Onde ſi
              <lb/>
            dice eſſer uſato alle fatiche; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s573" xml:space="preserve">eßer uſato, posto in uſo, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s574" xml:space="preserve">conſuetudine, biſogna adunque eſſer uſo al continuo penſamento del fine, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s575" xml:space="preserve">però
              <lb/>
            dice Vitr.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s576" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s577" xml:space="preserve">Fabrica eſſer continuo, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s578" xml:space="preserve">eſſercitato.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s579" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p style="it">
            <s xml:id="echoid-s580" xml:space="preserve">Et come uia trita, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s581" xml:space="preserve">battuta da paſſaggeri ſrequentato penſiero di indrizzare le coſe à fine conueniente, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s582" xml:space="preserve">da queſte parole ſi dimostra l’utili-
              <lb/>
            tà, che era conditione dell’ Arte. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s583" xml:space="preserve">Ma perche con tanta ſollecitudine di penſiero affaticarſ@? </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s584" xml:space="preserve">à che ſenza intermisſione auuertire? </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s585" xml:space="preserve">certo non
              <lb/>
            per altro, che per maniſeſtare in qualche materia eſteriore la ſorma, che prima era nel penſamento interiore, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s586" xml:space="preserve">però dice Vitr. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s587" xml:space="preserve">dando fine
              <lb/>
            alla diffinitione della fabrica, quella eſſere operatione maniſeſta in qualche materia fuori di noi ſecondo il penſiero, che era in noi. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s588" xml:space="preserve">Fabrica è no
              <lb/>
              <note position="left" xlink:label="note-0012-07" xlink:href="note-0012-07a" xml:space="preserve">70</note>
            me commune à tutte le parti dell’ Architettura, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s589" xml:space="preserve">molto piu contiene di quello, che communemente ſi ſtima come ſi dir à dapoi.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s590" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s591" xml:space="preserve">Diſcorſo è quello, che le coſe fabricate prontamente, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s592" xml:space="preserve">con ragione di proportione puo dimoſtrando manifeſtare.</s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s593" xml:space="preserve"/>
          </p>
          <p style="it">
            <s xml:id="echoid-s594" xml:space="preserve">Il diſcorſo è proprio dell’huomo, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s595" xml:space="preserve">la uirtù che diſcorre, è, quella che conſidera quanto ſi può fare con tutte le ragioni all’opere pertinenti,
              <lb/>
            & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s596" xml:space="preserve">pero erra il diſcorſo, quando l’intelletto non concorda le proprietà delle coſe atte à fare, con quelle, che ſono atte à riceuere. </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s597" xml:space="preserve">Diſcorre
              <lb/>
            adunque l’huomo, cioè applica il principio al fine per uia del mezzo; </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s598" xml:space="preserve">ilche come s’è detto, è, proprio dell’humana ſpetie, auuenga che mol-
              <lb/>
            ti de gli antichi habbino à gl’altri animali conceſſo una parte di ragione, & </s>
            <s xml:id="echoid-s599" xml:space="preserve">chiamati gli habbino maeſtri dell’huomo, dicendo che l’arte del </s>
          </p>
        </div>
      </text>
    </echo>